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Terrestrial Evidence of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleoindian Times
Mammoth Trumpet ^ | March 2001 | Firestone/Topping

Posted on 07/24/2006 12:03:03 AM PDT by ForGod'sSake

Terrestrial Evidence of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleoindian Times

by Richard B. Firestone & William Topping

The Paleoindian occupation of North America, theoretically the point of entry of the first people to the Americas, is traditionally assumed to have occurred within a short time span beginning at about 12,000 yr B.P. This is inconsistent with much older South American dates of around 32,000 yr B.P.1 and the similarity of the Paleoindian toolkit to Mousterian traditions that disappeared about 30,000 years ago.2. A pattern of unusually young radiocarbon dates in the Northeast has been noted by Bonnichsen and Will.3,4

Our research indicates that the entire Great Lakes region (and beyond) was subjected to particle bombardment and a catastrophic nuclear irradiation that produced secondary thermal neutrons from cosmic ray interactions. The neutrons produced unusually large quantities of 239Pu and substantially altered the natural uranium abundance ratios (235U/238U) in artifacts and in other exposed materials including cherts, sediments, and the entire landscape. These neutrons necessarily transmuted residual nitrogen (14N) in the dated charcoals to radiocarbon, thus explaining anomalous dates.

The evidence from dated materials

We investigated a cluster of especially young radiocarbon dates concentrated in the north-central area of North America. For example, at the Gainey site in Michigan a 2880 yr B.P. radiocarbon date was reported, while the thermoluminescence date for that site is 12,400 yr B.P.5 Other anomalous dates found at Leavitt in Michigan,6 Zander and Thedford in Ontario,7 Potts in New York,8 Alton in Indiana,9 and Grant Lake in Nunavut10 are summarized in Table 1. The Grant Lake Paleoindian site is most remarkable because its 160 [rc] yr B.P. age is nearly contemporary, while adjacent and deeper samples give ages of 1480-3620 [rc] yr B.P.

Stratigraphic associations place Paleoindian occupations at depth on the prehistoric North American landscape on sediments that form the old C horizon composed of parent material, Wisconsinan deposits that predate Holocene sediment buildup.11,12,13 The young Paleoindian dates cannot be correct, particularly since there are no patterned anomalies noted in later-period prehistoric assemblages relating to higher stratigraphic positions. In a pioneering study of the Paleoindian site at Barnes, Michigan, Wright and Roosa observed that Paleoindian artifacts were deposited before the formation of spodosols ceased in this area about 10,000 yr B.P.14 This conclusion was based on observing that cemented sediments on artifacts, found outside their original context, defines their original stratigraphic position.

The evidence from particle bombardment

Sediment profiles were taken at Paleoindian sites and at numerous widely separated control locations in Michigan. The C sediment horizon is clearly recognized by its transitional color and confirmed by elevated concentrations of potassium and other isotopes. Color and chemistry are key indicators of this very old soil11,12,13,14 derived from parent materials and associated postglacial runoff.15 At Gainey, large quantities of micrometeorite-like particles appear to be concentrated near the boundary between the B and C sediment horizons. They can be separated with a magnet and are identified by the presence of chondrules and by visual evidence of sintering and partial melting. These particles, dissimilar to common magnetites, are found in association with a high frequency of "spherules." The depth profiles for potassium and particles at the Gainey site are compared in Fig. 1. Minor vertical sorting of particles is apparent, with a shallow spike of particles near the surface probably resulting from modern agricultural or industrial activity. Total gamma-ray counting of sediment profiles in the various locations invariably showed increased radioactivity at the B-C boundary consistent with enhanced potassium (40K) and possibly other activities.

Microscopic examination of chert artifacts from several widely separated Paleoindian locations in North America revealed a high density of entrance wounds and particles at depths that are evidence of high-velocity particle bombardment. Chondrules were identified visually; their presence necessarily indicates heating during high-speed entry into the atmosphere. The depth of penetration into the artifacts implies that the particles entered with substantial energy.16 Field simulations with control cherts for large particles (100-200 microns) suggest an entrance velocity greater than 0.4 km/s, and experiments at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory indicate that the smaller particles left tracks comparable to about 526 MeV iron ions (56Fe) in Gainey artifacts. Similar features are not observed in later-period prehistoric artifacts or in bedrock chert sources. Track angles were estimated visually; track densities were measured with a stage micrometer; track depths were found by adjusting the microscope focus through the track. These data are summarized in Table 1.

Track and particle data in Table 1 suggest that the total track volume (density times depth) is highest at the Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana sites and decreases in all directions from this region, consistent with a widespread catastrophe concentrated over the Great Lakes region. The nearly vertical direction of the tracks left by particle impacts at most sites suggests they came from a distant source.


A barn is a unit of area equal to 10-24 cm2, used in nuclear physics. The fraction of isotopes that are transformed by a nuclear reaction is given by s x I, where s is the cross section in cm2 of the target presented by an atom, and I is the neutron flux per cm2 impinging on the target. Most neutron-induced reactions involve the capture of a neutron to produce a heavier isotope of the same element. Exceptions include 14N, which captures a neutron and emits a proton to produce 14C; and 235U, which mainly fissions into two lighter elements. The relative size of isotopes in chert is shown in figure "A neutron's view of chert."


The evidence from uranium and plutonium

Natural uranium, which is ubiquitous in cherts, has a 235U/238U isotopic ratio of 0.72 percent, which varies by less than 0.1 percent in natural sources.17 Significant variations in the isotopic ratio do not occur because of chemical processes; however, a thermal neutron bombardment depletes 235U and thus alters the ratio. Solar or galactic cosmic rays interacting with matter produce fast secondary neutrons that become thermalized by scattering from surrounding materials. Thermal neutrons see a target of large cross section (681 barns)A for destroying 235U, compared with a target of only 2.68 barns for neutron capture on 238U. Therefore, despite the low abundance of 235U, about 1.8 times as many 235U atoms are destroyed as 238U atoms by thermal neutrons.

If a large cosmic-ray bombardment impacted the earth and irradiated the prehistoric landscape with thermal neutrons, the 235U/238U ratio would be changed; 239Pu would be produced from neutron capture on 238U, followed by the decay of 239U. Neutrons colliding with nitrogen (1.83 barns) would create 14C in exactly the same way 14C is normally produced in the upper atmosphere, necessarily resetting the radiocarbon dates of any organic materials lying near the surface on the North American prehistoric landscape--including charcoals at Paleoindian sites--to younger values. 239Pu produced during the bombardment will also be partly destroyed by thermal neutrons with 1017 barn cross section. Assuming 239Pu doesn't mobilize, it will decay back to 235U (half-life 24,110 yr), partially restoring the normal abundance.

Paleoindian artifacts from Gainey, Leavitt, and Butler, and two later-period artifacts from the same geographic area of Michigan were analyzed for 235U content by gamma-ray counting at the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory, University of Michigan. They were compared with identical chert types representative of the source materials for the artifacts. Control samples were extracted from the inner core of the purest chert known to be utilized by prehistoric people. The Paleoindian artifacts contained about 78 percent as much 235U as the controls and later-period artifacts, suggesting substantial depletion. Depletion of 235U necessarily indicates that thermal neutrons impacted these artifacts and the surrounding prehistoric landscape.

Various artifacts, cherts, sediments, and a control sample containing about 0.2 percent uranium obtained from uraninite were sent to the McMaster University Centre for Neutron Activation Analysis to determine 235U concentration by delayed neutron counting and 238U concentration by activation analysis. These results are shown in Table 2. The 235U/238U ratios for all samples except the control deviated substantially from the expected ratio. McMaster ran additional calibration standards and has considerable expertise analyzing low-level uranium. This analysis was sensitive to a few ppb for 235U and 0.1-0.3 ppm for 238U, more than sufficient to precisely analyze the uranium-rich chert samples (0.7-163.5 ppm). Most samples were depleted in 235U, depletion increasing geographically from the southwest (Baker, Chuska chert, 17 percent) to the northeast (Upper Mercer, 77 percent), as shown in Table 2. This is consistent with cosmic rays focused towards northern latitudes by Earth's magnetic field. Only a very large thermal neutron flux, greater than 1020 n/cm2, could have depleted 235U at all locations.

Samples of unaltered flakes from Taylor and sediment originally adjacent to Gainey artifacts showed 235U enriched by 30 percent. Both samples were closely associated with the particles described above. The position of these samples appears to be related to the enrichment, which cannot be explained by thermal neutrons from the bombardment. To test this, we bathed another Taylor flake in 48-percent HF at 60°F for ten minutes to remove the outer 70 percent of the sample and the attached particles. Analysis showed the "inner" flake depleted in 235U by 20 percent, consistent with the other depleted cherts.

Samples of Gainey sediment and Taylor flakes were analyzed for plutonium by Nuclear Technology Services, Inc., of Roswell, Georgia, which specializes in radiochemistry using standard methodology. The plutonium, with an aliquot of NIST-traceable 242Pu added, was chemically separated on an anion exchange resin column and counted on an alpha-particle spectrometer. The 239Pu/238U ratios in both samples were approximately 10 ppb, vastly exceeding the expected ratio of 0.003 ppb.18 The results of this analysis are shown in Table 2.

Chert is a glass-like material highly impervious to penetration by any nuclear fallout that might also contribute 239Pu. We analyzed a long-exposed piece of Bayport chert by gamma-ray counting at the LBNL low-background facility for the presence of cesium-137 (137Cs), a key indicator of fallout (from nuclear testing), and found none. The B-C interface typically lies sufficiently deep that contamination by fallout is improbable. It is important to note that fallout cannot explain the depletion of 235U.

Since the depletion of 235U must have resulted from bombardment by thermal neutrons, the presence of 239Pu from irradiation of 238U is expected. The total thermal neutron flux required to produce the observed 239Pu concentration can be calculated from the relative concentrations of 239Pu (corrected for the decay) and 238U, and the thermal neutron-capture cross section for 238U. This neutron flux can then be used to estimate the amount of additional 14C that would have been produced in charcoal by neutrons colliding with 14N (14N cross section = 1.83 barns). The corrected radiocarbon age can then be estimated by comparing the current amount of 14C in the dated charcoals, determined from their measured radiocarbon age, with the amount of 14C that would have been produced by the bombardment. For these calculations we assume that charcoal contains 0.05 percent residual nitrogen19 and that initial 14C concentrations were the same as today (one 14C atom for 1012 12C atoms).

We derive a thermal neutron flux of c. 1017 n/cm2 at Gainey, which corresponds to an approximate date of 39,000 yr B.P. No radiocarbon date is available for the more southerly Taylor site, but for the conventional range of accepted Paleoindian dates the neutron flux would be c. 1016 n/cm2, giving a date of about 40,000 yr B.P. These calculations necessarily neglect differences in the neutron flux experienced by the dated charcoal and the artifacts, the effects of residual 239Pu from previous bombardments, and loss of 239Pu due to leaching from chert over time.

The neutron flux calculated from the 235U/238U ratio is more than 1000 times that implied by the level of 239Pu. Since 239Pu decays to 235U, partly restoring the natural abundance, it appears that substantial quantities of 239Pu have migrated out of the chert. This mobility is demonstrated at the Nevada Test Site, where plutonium, produced in nuclear tests conducted by the U.S. between 1956 and 1992, migrated 1.3 km.20 It has also been shown that atoms produced by radioactive decay or nuclear reaction become weakly bound to the parent material and pass more readily into solution than isotopes not affected.21 Both 239Pu and 235U are thus expected to be mobile, complicating any analysis. This is consistent with the enrichment of 235U in the two external samples where migrating 239Pu or 235U may have been trapped, thus enriching the relatively uranium-poor outer regions. Alternatively, excess 235U may have been carried in by the particles. Radiocarbon produced in situ by irradiation should also be mobile. If 14C is more mobile than 239Pu, then the dates calculated above should be decreased accordingly.

Redating North American sites

The 39,000 yr B.P. date proposed for the Gainey site is consistent with the prevailing opinion among many archaeologists about when the Americas were populated. It is also commensurate with dates for South American sites and with a Mousterian toolkit tradition that many see as the Paleoindian precursor. The proposed date for the Gainey site also falls closer in line with the radiocarbon date for a Lewisville, Texas, Paleoindian site of 26,610 ± 300 yr B.P.22,23 and radiocarbon dates as early as c. 20,000 yr B.P. for Meadowcroft Rockshelter.24 Since the Lewisville and Meadowcroft sites were likely exposed at the same time to thermal neutrons, we estimate that their dates should be reset to c. 55,000 yr B.P. and c. 45,000 yr B.P., respectively.

It is likely that Paleoindians occupied low latitudes during the full glacial and migrated to more northerly areas as the ice front retreated. Therefore the pattern of dates makes sense from the archaeologist's point of view. Dates for North American sites should generally be reset by up to 40,000 years, depending on latitude and overburden.

Geologists believe that before c. 15,000 yr B.P. the Wisconsinan glaciation covered the more northerly locations where Paleoindian sites have been found.25 The ice sheet would have shielded the landscape and any artifacts from an irradiation. (The Gainey thermoluminescence date of 12,400 yr B.P. is probably a result of the heat generated by the nuclear bombardment at that time, which would have reset the TL index to zero.) The modified dates for Paleoindian settlements suggest that the timetable for glacial advance sequences, strongly driven by conventional radiocarbon dates, should be revisited in light of the evidence presented here of much older occupations than previously thought."


The alignment of magnetic particles in sediment indicates that the Earth's magnetic poles have repeatedly reversed their polarity in the past. Complete magnetic excursions occurred about 10 times in 4.5 million years; the last reversal occurred about 700,000 years ago. Magnetic excursions occur every 10,000-20,000 years when the Earth's magnetic field becomes weak, and the poles may even reverse for a short time.


The evidence from tree rings and marine sediments

A large nuclear bombardment should have left evidence elsewhere in the radiocarbon record. It is well known that radiocarbon dates are increasingly too young as we go back in time. The global Carbon Cycle suggests that 14C produced by cosmic rays would be rapidly dispersed in the large carbon reservoirs in the atmosphere, land, and oceans.26 We would expect to see a sudden increase in radiocarbon in the atmosphere that would be incorporated into plants and animals soon after the irradiation; after only a few years, most of the radiocarbon would move into the ocean reservoirs. The 14C level in the fossil record would reset to a higher value. The excess global radiocarbon would then decay with a half-life of 5730 years, which should be seen in the radiocarbon analysis of varved systems.

Fig. 2 plots 14C from the INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration data of Stuiver et al. for 15,000-0 yr B.P.27 and Icelandic marine sediment 14C data measured by Voelker et al. for 50,000-11,000 yr B.P.28 Excess 14C is indicated by the difference between the reported radiocarbon dates and actual dates. Sharp increases in 14C are apparent in the marine data at 40,000-43,000, 32,000-34,000 and c. 12,000 yr B.P These increases are coincident with geomagnetic excursionsB that occurred at about 12,000 (Gothenburg), 32,000 (Mono Lake), and 43,000 yr B.P. (Laschamp),29 when the reduced magnetic field would have made Earth especially vulnerable to cosmic ray bombardment. The interstitial radiocarbon data following the three excursions were numerically fit, assuming exponential decay plus a constant cosmic ray-produced component. The fitted half-lives of 5750 yr (37,000-34,000 yr B.P.), 6020 yr (32,000-16,000 yr B.P.), and 6120 yr (12,000-0 yr B.P.) are in good agreement with the expected value.

We also determined that contemporary radiocarbon contains about 7 percent residual 14C left over from the catastrophe. The constant cosmic ray production rate was about 34 percent higher for the Icelandic sediment than the INTCAL98 samples, perhaps implying higher cosmic ray rates farther north. Disregarding fluctuations in the data from variations in ocean temperatures and currents, the results are clearly consistent with the decay of radiocarbon following the three geomagnetic excursions.

In Fig. 2, the sharp drop in 14C activity before 41,000 yr B.P. suggests that global radiocarbon increased by about 45 percent at that time and by about 20 percent at 33,000 and 12,000 yr B.P The results are remarkably consistent with Vogel's comparison of 14C and U-Th dates of a stalagmite that indicates global radiocarbon increased about 75 percent from 30,000 to 40,000 yr B.P. and about 30 percent around 18,000 yr B.P.30

McHargue et al. found high levels of 10Be in Gulf of California marine sediments at 32,000 and 43,000 yr B.P.C that could not be explained by magnetic reversal alone and were attributed to cosmic rays, possibly from a supernova.29 The geomagnetic excursion at 12,500 yr B.P. coincides with the thermoluminescence date from Gainey, and additional evidence for a cosmic ray bombardment at that time is found in the increases of 10Be,31 Ca,32 and Mg32 in Greenland ice cores around 12,500 yr B.P. Similar increases are also seen in the data for NO3-, SO4-, Mg+, Cl-, K+, and Na+ ions in Greenland ice cores.33 This occurrence can be dated precisely to 12,500 ± 500 yr B.P., an average of the remarkably consistent concentration peak centroids in the Greenland ice core data. Significant increases at that time are not found in comparable data for the Antarctic, which indicates that the cosmic ray irradiation was centered in the Northern Hemisphere. Weak evidence of an occurrence at 12,500 yr B.P. is seen in the radiocarbon record for marine sediments near Venezuela,34 confirming that the cosmic ray bombardment was most severe in northern latitudes.

Lunar cosmogenic data also show evidence of increased solar cosmic ray activity at or before 20,000 yr B.P.35,36 although these data are not sensitive to earlier irradiation.


Beryllium occurs naturally as 9Be. 10Be is produced by cosmic rays, mostly protons, striking the atmosphere and breaking apart nitrogen and oxygen. It has a half-life of 1.5 million years. Unlike 14C, which is caught up in the global Carbon Cycle, 10Be is inert and falls as dust. 10Be is produced almost entirely by galactic cosmic rays, which are much higher in energy than solar cosmic rays. Thus any increase in 10Be would be cosmic in origin; and the cosmic ray rate could only change if there were a nearby supernova. During the last Ice Age the 10Be deposition rate in ice at both poles was much higher than today. Gulf of California marine sediments clearly show strong 10Be peaks at 32,000 and 43,000 yr B.P. McHargue argues that these peaks can only be explained by a supernova.


The effect of a supernova on Earth

Sonett suggests that a single supernova would produce two or three shock waves, an initial forward shock and a pair of reverse shocks from the initial expansion and a reflected wave from the shell boundary of a more ancient supernova.39,40 Fig. 2 shows that each episode in a series produced a similar amount of atmospheric radiocarbon. The sun lies almost exactly in the center41 of the Local Bubble, believed to be the result of a past nearby supernova event. A candidate for the reverse shock wave is the supernova remnant North Polar Spur, with an estimated age of 75,000 years and a distance of 130 ± 75 parsecs (424 light years),42 conveniently located in the north sky from where it would have preferentially irradiated the Northern Hemisphere. Assuming the Taylor flux is average and 1,000 neutrons are produced per erg of gamma-ray energy,43 the catastrophe would have released about 1016 erg/cm2 (2 x 108 cal/cm2), corresponding to a solar flare of 1043 ergs or a gamma-flash of 1054 ergs from a supernova about 1 parsec away.

The geographical distribution of particle tracks, 235U depletion, and 239Pu concentration shown in Fig. 3 are quite consistent, although the particle tracks seem to be confined to a smaller geographic area. They indicate energy released over the northeastern sector of the U.S., with maximum energy at about 43° N, 85° W, the Michigan area of the Great Lakes region.

A history of suspected cosmic cataclysms over the ages

Wdowczyk and Wolfendale44 and Zook36 propose, based on the existing record of solar flare intensities, that solar flares as large as 3 x 1038 ergs should be expected every 100,000 years. Clark et al. estimate that supernovas release 1047-1050 ergs within 10 parsecs of Earth every 100 million years.45 Brackenridge suggests that a supernova impacted the earth in Paleoindian times.46 Damon et al. report evidence from the 14C tree ring record that SN1006, which occurred at a distance of 1300 parsecs, produced a neutron shower of 2 x 108 n/cm2.47 Castagnoli et al. report evidence of the past six nearby supernovae from the thermoluminescence record of Tyrrhenian sea sediments.48 Dar et al. suggest that a cosmic ray jet within 1000 parsec would produce 1012 muons/cm2 (greater than 3 x 109 eV) and 1010 protons and neutrons/cm 2 (greater than 106 eV) and deposit over 1012 erg/cm2 in the atmosphere every 100 million years.49 A cosmic ray jet is also predicted to produce heavy elements via the r-process and could be a source of 235U enriched up to 60 percent in uranium.

The Paleoindian catastrophe was large by standards of all suspected cosmic occurrences. Normal geomagnetic conditions would focus cosmic rays towards the magnetic poles, concentrating their severity in those regions. However, low magnetic field intensity during a geomagnetic excursion may have allowed excessive cosmic rays to strike northeastern North America. (Whether the geomagnetic excursion admitted cosmic radiation, or the radiation caused the excursion, is uncertain. Given our present state of knowledge, cause and effect in this instance are unclear.) The presence of a nearby small and dense interstellar cloud may explain the origin of the particle bombardment.50 The size of the initial catastrophe may be too large for a solar flare, but a sufficiently powerful nearby supernova or cosmic ray jet could account for it. It appears that the catastrophe initiated a sequence of events that may have included solar flares, impacts, and secondary cosmic ray bombardments.

A devastating effect on Earth

The enormous energy released by the catastrophe at 12,500 yr B.P. could have heated the atmosphere to over 1000°C over Michigan, and the neutron flux at more northern locations would have melted considerable glacial ice. Radiation effects on plants and animals exposed to the cosmic rays would have been lethal, comparable to being irradiated in a 5-megawatt reactor more than 100 seconds.

The overall pattern of the catastrophe matches the pattern of mass extinction before Holocene times. The Western Hemisphere was more affected than the Eastern, North America more than South America, and eastern North America more than western North America.51,52,53 Extinction in the Great Lakes area was more rapid and pronounced than elsewhere. Larger animals were more affected than smaller ones, a pattern that conforms to the expectation that radiation exposure affects large bodies more than smaller ones.54,55 Sharp fluctuations of 14C in the Icelandic marine sediments at each geomagnetic excursion are interesting; because global carbon deposits in the ocean sediments at a rate of only about 0.0005 percent a year, a sudden increase in sediment 14C may reflect the rapid die-off of organisms that incorporated radiocarbon shortly after bombardment.

Massive radiation would be expected to cause major mutations in plant life. Maize probably evolved by macro-mutation at that time,55,56 and plant domestication of possibly mutated forms appears worldwide after the Late Glacial period. For example, there was a rapid transition from wild to domesticated grains in the Near East after the catastrophe.57

Implications for future study

Much of what we assume about the Paleoindian period and the peopling of the Americas has been inferred from conventional radiocarbon chronology, which often conflicts with archaeological evidence. This work mandates that conventional radiocarbon dates be reinterpreted in light of hard terrestrial evidence of exposure of the radiocarbon samples to a cosmological catastrophe that affected vast areas of North America and beyond. A nuclear catastrophe can reset a group of unrelated artifacts to a common younger date, creating gaps and false episodes in the fossil record. Geographical variation and complicated overburdens may further confuse the interpretation. Scrutiny of Paleoindian artifacts and the North American paleolandscape, associated stratigraphic sediments, coupled with continued radiological investigations, may provide more evidence for the cosmic catastrophe and new clues to the origin of Paleoindians.


TOPICS: Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: anthropology; archaeology; billtopping; callingartbell; carolinabay; catastrophism; clovis; clovisimpact; comet; dickfirestone; easternseaboard; firestone; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; impact; iridium; maunderminimum; paleoindian; paleoindianperiod; paleoperiod; pleistocene; richardbfirestone; richardfirestone; rickfirestone; sn1006; solar; solarflares; supernova; topping; williamtopping; youngerdryas
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Rebuttal and Counter-Rebuttal to this article.

What appears to be a companion article:

Scientist: Comets Blasted Early Americans

Also, the most recent date of global disruption(Pleistocene - Holocene) was not lost on George Howard who has been studying the Carolina Bays' formation for 20+ years: Is this event connected with the Carolina Bays?

IOW, the culprit that formed to Carolina Bays may have also been the Pleistocene/Holocene event.

One interesting side note(that may or may not be relevent): The Great Lakes area is roughly the extrapolated source(the point of origin) of the axes of the Carolina Bays.

1 posted on 07/24/2006 12:03:06 AM PDT by ForGod'sSake
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To: SunkenCiv; blam

~FYI~


2 posted on 07/24/2006 12:04:53 AM PDT by ForGod'sSake (ABCNNBCBS: An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly.)
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To: ForGod'sSake

"Electronic Evidence of Psychotic Delusion Induced by Freebased "Crack" Cocaine Inhalation"

;^)


3 posted on 07/24/2006 12:10:21 AM PDT by AntiGuv ("..I do things for political expediency.." - Sen. John McCain on FOX News)
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To: ForGod'sSake; blam; FairOpinion; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; ...
Thanks ForGod'sSake. Definitely a fringe topic, and I kinda love those. Will appear in the Digest 106 under "Oh So Mysteriouso".

This is also a Catastrophism topic, so that list gets a ping as well.

Good night, all.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

4 posted on 07/24/2006 12:12:22 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Wednesday, June 21, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: 75thOVI; AndrewC; Avoiding_Sulla; BenLurkin; Berosus; CGVet58; chilepepper; ckilmer; demlosers; ...
Catastrophism

5 posted on 07/24/2006 12:12:55 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Wednesday, June 21, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: ForGod'sSake

Scientific American had a paper a year or so ago about natural nuclear reactors I think in what is now Turkey. These burned out thousands of years ago but existed because uranium and some other element occurred in the same geology close together and formed a pile.


6 posted on 07/24/2006 12:14:00 AM PDT by Brad from Tennessee (Anything a politician gives you he has first stolen from you)
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To: ForGod'sSake
There's a number of links on these "natural reactors." Here's the briefest one: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_nuclear_fission_reactor
7 posted on 07/24/2006 12:17:29 AM PDT by Brad from Tennessee (Anything a politician gives you he has first stolen from you)
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To: ForGod'sSake
He lost me at 12,000 BP. I know the athiests insist on BCE (before common era?) for Before Christ. But what the heck is B.P.?

yitbos - "Those who control language control minds. " - Ayn Rand

8 posted on 07/24/2006 12:21:40 AM PDT by bruinbirdman ("Those who control language control minds. " - Ayn Rand)
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To: AntiGuv

Fersher. We are talking Berzerkly though...


9 posted on 07/24/2006 12:34:59 AM PDT by ForGod'sSake (ABCNNBCBS: An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly.)
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To: bruinbirdman

BP contrary to ignorant belief is not an oil company. It means Before the Present. I think it is calibrated to 1950 because of some problem related to Carbon 14 dating, possible after the nuclear age. Perhaps someone else can clarify that.


10 posted on 07/24/2006 12:36:06 AM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: bruinbirdman

BP - before present


11 posted on 07/24/2006 12:36:28 AM PDT by Tax Government (Defeat the evil miscreant donkeys and their rhino lackeys.)
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To: Brad from Tennessee
Scientific American had a paper a year or so ago about natural nuclear reactors...

I think I recall that. How's about The Nuclear Heart of the Earth?

12 posted on 07/24/2006 12:38:02 AM PDT by ForGod'sSake (ABCNNBCBS: An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly.)
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To: Tax Government

"Before Present" doesn't seem terribly scientific, since "today" rapidly becomes yesterday.

I don't care whether they pick the alleged year of the alleged birth of Jesus of Nazareth as a fixed point or something else, but they ought to pick something.


13 posted on 07/24/2006 12:40:25 AM PDT by CobaltBlue (Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice. Moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.)
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To: AntiGuv
"Electronic Evidence of Psychotic Delusion Induced by Freebased "Crack" Cocaine Inhalation"

My first reaction too. But this is published by a research center at Texas A&M.

I don't see any journal citations to this article, tho. So it may not have been peer reviewed?

14 posted on 07/24/2006 12:43:00 AM PDT by ModelBreaker
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To: ForGod'sSake
A little radiation never hurt anybody...


15 posted on 07/24/2006 12:47:34 AM PDT by sourcery (A libertarian is a conservative who has been mugged ...by his own government)
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To: Brad from Tennessee
There is also evidence of a nuclear event in India.

In addition, I have read that there is evidence for a sudden rush of fresh water into the Gulf of Mexico which occured at the approximate end of the last ice age.

This was not a slow stream, but a sudden outpouring of water. An event heating the atmosphere over the Great Lakes could have caused this.

16 posted on 07/24/2006 12:51:35 AM PDT by happygrl
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To: ModelBreaker

The authors themselves state this in their above linked 'counter-rebuttal': "Southon and Taylor correctly point out that the event as published was too extreme to be reasonable."


17 posted on 07/24/2006 12:53:11 AM PDT by AntiGuv ("..I do things for political expediency.." - Sen. John McCain on FOX News)
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To: bruinbirdman
 Before Present
18 posted on 07/24/2006 12:53:38 AM PDT by RWR8189 (George Allen for President)
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To: ForGod'sSake

Wow. For a few minutes it felt like I was reading Emmanuel Velakovsky again to please my geology teacher.
Now I have to lay down for awhile.


19 posted on 07/24/2006 12:54:38 AM PDT by MadJack ("..we lost our corkscrew and were compelled to live on food and water for several days." W.C. Fields)
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To: CobaltBlue

See post 18.


20 posted on 07/24/2006 12:54:48 AM PDT by RWR8189 (George Allen for President)
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To: Pontiac

Bump for later.


21 posted on 07/24/2006 1:09:04 AM PDT by Pontiac (All are worthy of freedom, none are incapable.)
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To: CobaltBlue

Just read that B.P., aka Before Present and Before Physics, apparently is counted from 1950, before nuclear testing changed carbon dating. It's about as arbitrary as using the estimation of Jesus' birth, which is before major man-made explosions in general. It's also known as C.E., aka Common Era, Current Era and Christian Era.


22 posted on 07/24/2006 1:14:50 AM PDT by skr (We cannot play innocents abroad in a world that is not innocent.-- Ronald Reagan)
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To: happygrl

Yes, it's known as the younger dryas period(a type of grass that proliferates in the cooler, dryer environment of ice ages). Appearently the athabasca glacier emptied into the gulf of mexico, then it melted a path thru to the St Lawrence river, dumping all that cold, fresh water into the north atlantic. That then reversed the on-going emergence from the ice age for about 1000 years, disrupting the gulf steam that warms europe, until the melt water flow returned to the gulf of mexico once again. Even here in MT/ID/WA we have clear evidence of massive, periodic floods from Lake Missoula, filling all the valleys of western MT, and gouging out the channeled scablands of western WA state, plus deepening the Columbia River basin.....This excellent report is suggesting that a supernova, possibly with a magnetic field anomoly(we know the earth's magnetic field is dynamically evolving)is primaily responsible for melting us out of the last ice age. Good, interesting science detective work!


23 posted on 07/24/2006 2:54:26 AM PDT by timer
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To: MadJack
"Emmanuel Velakovsky"

Immanuel Velikovsky.

Quota pars tanti nobis committitur?

24 posted on 07/24/2006 3:55:39 AM PDT by Fred Nerks (Read the bio THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD free! Click Fred Nerks for link to my Page.)
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To: Fred Nerks

bump


25 posted on 07/24/2006 4:14:10 AM PDT by spower
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To: ForGod'sSake; SunkenCiv; blam

That Carolina Bay article is so full of errors and misconceptions, that it is hardly worth taking seriously. I won't address all of them, but here are a few points to consider:
Although the Bay Rims date from the Pleistocene-holocene boundary, the bays themselves do not. They are contemporaneous with the fluviomarine terraces upon which they occur, and therefore, were not all formed at once, but sequentially; as sea level dropped and each new terrace was exposed, new bays were formed. The arrangement of bays on the landscape is not random; The largest bays on each terrace are concentrated just below the toe of the landward scarp, and average bay size decreases seaward along each terrace. That pattern repeats on each terrace. The phenomenon is CLEARLY hydrologic in nature, and is not related to cataclysm.

I had not heard of Douglas A. Johnson, but I came to conclusions similar to his after 11 years of mapping soils in Carolina Bays in northeastern South Carolina. Howard conveniently overlooks work done in Charleston County, South Carolina (forgive me, I can't cite the literature at the moment, but I could look it up) showing that large bays overlay infilled river channels (incisions that were refilled during a marine transgression). He also neglects the probability that any heat source sufficient to cause explosive vaporization of soil or shallow water would also probably have produced fused glass on the soil surface (the soils in the area having mostly quartz sand in the surface layer). In years of intensive field examination of soil surfaces in the area, I never once found fused glass, and I am not aware that any soil micromorphologists have found shocked quartz in surface layers from the Pee Dee.

Finally, people who plot the long axes of Carolina Bays, and look toward Michigan, are looking in the wrong direction. The bays all point DOWNHILL, i.e., seaward. They are all pointing in the direction that water travels!


26 posted on 07/24/2006 5:01:03 AM PDT by Renfield (If Gene Tracy was the entertainment at your senior prom, YOU might be a redneck...)
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To: ForGod'sSake
The enormous energy released by the catastrophe at 12,500 yr B.P. could have heated the atmosphere to over 1000°C over Michigan, and the neutron flux at more northern locations would have melted considerable glacial ice. Radiation effects on plants and animals exposed to the cosmic rays would have been lethal, comparable to being irradiated in a 5-megawatt reactor more than 100 seconds.

I thought Al Gore said global warming was going to destroy Earth.

27 posted on 07/24/2006 5:04:43 AM PDT by 6SJ7
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To: Fred Nerks

Yeah, I did some looking around after my comment and realized I'd spelled it wrong. At least I read his stuff.


28 posted on 07/24/2006 5:10:45 AM PDT by MadJack ("..we lost our corkscrew and were compelled to live on food and water for several days." W.C. Fields)
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To: skr
I thought it stood for BRITISH PETROLEUM!...........
29 posted on 07/24/2006 5:16:54 AM PDT by Red Badger (Is Castro dead yet?........)
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To: ForGod'sSake

I sure am glad I have this nifty new tinfoil hat to protect me from any more of this cataclysmic nuke action from outer space.....


30 posted on 07/24/2006 5:21:00 AM PDT by TheBattman (Islam (and liberalism)- the cult of a Cancer on Society)
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To: ForGod'sSake

IN 2101 B.C....
WAR WAS BEGINNING.


31 posted on 07/24/2006 5:26:37 AM PDT by RichInOC (HA HA HA HA....)
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To: Renfield
"That Carolina Bay article is so full of errors and misconceptions, that it is hardly worth taking seriously."

I haven't paid much attention to the Carolina Bays since (ahem) you scolded me a couple years ago. (Now, the Carolina Dog is a whole 'nother story)

32 posted on 07/24/2006 6:01:14 AM PDT by blam
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To: Brad from Tennessee; SunkenCiv
"Scientific American had a paper a year or so ago about natural nuclear reactors I think in what is now Turkey. These burned out thousands of years ago but existed because uranium and some other element occurred in the same geology close together and formed a pile."

Yup. We have a GGG post on that somewhere...now, if we can get SunkenCiv to use his excellent search capability to find it...

33 posted on 07/24/2006 6:03:56 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

I'd be interested in reading that.


34 posted on 07/24/2006 6:13:39 AM PDT by Tampa Caver
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To: ForGod'sSake

bump for later


35 posted on 07/24/2006 6:24:53 AM PDT by norton
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To: bruinbirdman
BP=Before Present.

It's the notation preferred by scientists sponsored by British Petroleum (/joke)
36 posted on 07/24/2006 6:42:39 AM PDT by null and void (<----admits nothing, denies everything and makes counter accusations.)
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To: ForGod'sSake
Obviously space aliens...
37 posted on 07/24/2006 6:47:01 AM PDT by null and void (<----admits nothing, denies everything and makes counter accusations.)
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To: KevinDavis

Space boom!


38 posted on 07/24/2006 6:49:41 AM PDT by raygun
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To: ForGod'sSake

So paleoindian lithic industries are Mousterian now? I doubt it; the Mousterian is mostly associated with Homo Neanderthalensis.


39 posted on 07/24/2006 7:01:13 AM PDT by Heatseeker
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To: bruinbirdman
BP is no sillier than the rest of the hundreds of dating systems developed over the past thousands of years.
I suppose it being fixed at 1950 doesn't really matter when it's used to refer to events millions or hundreds of millions of years ago.

Many of the current systems are based on some temporary (in geologic terms)super-naturalist belief system.
It would be real difficult to have a permanent dating system since nothing is permanent (except change.)

40 posted on 07/24/2006 8:34:46 AM PDT by ASA Vet (3.03)
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To: RichInOC

ALL YOUR BAYS ARE BELONG TO US.


41 posted on 07/24/2006 8:44:46 AM PDT by Erasmus (<This page left intentionally vague>)
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To: Brad from Tennessee; Tampa Caver; blam

maybe this one?

Scientific maverick's theory on Earth's core up for a test
SF Chronicle | Monday, November 29, 2004 | Keay Davidson
Posted on 12/05/2004 2:17:28 PM EST by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1294934/posts


42 posted on 07/24/2006 9:28:31 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Wednesday, June 21, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: timer; happygrl

"a supernova...is primarily responsible for melting us out of the last ice age."

While there is evidence for the supernova, it seems that either separately or in conjunction, some kind of boloid event also took place. I wonder if it could have been Tungusku-like in nature?

To quote from the article: "...large quentities of micrometeorite-like particles appear to be concentrated near the boundary between the B and C sediment horizons. They can be separated with a magnet and are identified by the presence of chondrules and by visual evidence of sintering and partial melting. These particles, dissimilar to common magnetites, are found in association with a high frequency of 'spherules.'"

Also, "Microscopic examination of chert artifacts from several widely separated Paleoindian locations in North America revealed a high density of entrance wounds and particles at depths that are evidence of high-velocity particle bombardment. Chondrules were identified visually; their presence necessarily indicates heating during high-speed entry into the atmosphere. The depth of penetration into the artifacts implies that the particles entered with substantial energy. Field simulations with control cherts for large particles (100-200 microns) suggest an entrance velocity greater than 0.4 km/second....Similar features are not observed in later-period prehistoric artifacts or in bedrock chert sources."

In summary, "Track and particle date...suggest that the total track volume...is highest at the Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana sites and decreases in all directions from this region, consistent with a widespread catastrophe concentrated over the Great Lakes region. The nearly verticle direction of the tracks left by particle impacts at most sites suggests they came from a distant source."

If the timing is right, this might explain findings of great masses of shredded animals in the far northern hemisphere, and flash frozen mammoths with undigested buttercups in their stomacks in Siberia.

Perhaps someone with a better dictionary than mine could define words like chondrule, sintering, spherules. I think these might refer to shocked quartz which is specific to boloid events.


43 posted on 07/24/2006 9:53:32 AM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: SunkenCiv
"maybe this one? "

Nah. It's one I posted. It was somewhere in Africa, I believe.

44 posted on 07/24/2006 9:58:48 AM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv
Here's a non FR version of what I'm talking about.

"Explanation: The remnants of nuclear reactors nearly two billion years old were found in the 1970s in Africa. These reactors are thought to have occurred naturally. No natural reactors exist today, as the relative density of fissile uranium has now decayed below that needed for a sustainable reaction. Pictured above is Fossil Reactor 15, located in Oklo, Gabon. Uranium oxide remains are visible as the yellowish rock. Oklo by-products are being used today to probe the stability of the fundamental constants over cosmological time-scales and to develop more effective means for disposing of human-manufactured nuclear waste."

45 posted on 07/24/2006 10:03:00 AM PDT by blam
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To: cogitator

Info fer the geology class.


46 posted on 07/24/2006 10:05:56 AM PDT by Robert A. Cook, PE (I can only donate monthly, but Hillary's ABBCNNBCBS continue to lie every day!)
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To: ASA Vet

I'm sure you heard the joke where the museum guide says "This dinosaur bone is 65 million and 4 years old". One of the tourists says that's amazing how he knows it so precisely. The guide says "Yep - when I started the museum director told me it was 65 million years old - and that was 4 years ago."


47 posted on 07/24/2006 10:16:50 AM PDT by geopyg (If the carrot doesn't work, use the stick. Don't wish for peace, pray for Victory.)
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To: sourcery

48 posted on 07/24/2006 10:22:05 AM PDT by Graymatter ("Put only Americans on guard tonight." -- George Washington)
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To: gleeaikin
I wonder if it could have been Tungusku-like in nature?

Maybe the spaceship argument?

Serious how would they explain the existence of Mega Fauna (though seriously downsized) on Wrangell Is. and the California Channel Is. many Milena after they had disappeared on the continents?

49 posted on 07/24/2006 10:28:12 AM PDT by Mike Darancette (999-TNS)
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To: RichInOC

50 posted on 07/24/2006 12:00:30 PM PDT by BenLurkin ("The entire remedy is with the people." - W. H. Harrison)
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