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Tamil Trade
INTAMM ^ | 1997 | Xavier S. Thani Nayagam

Posted on 09/11/2004 8:07:01 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

Whatever study has been made so far of the Tamil texts side by side with comparable data available in Strabo, Pliny, the Periplus Maris Erythraei and Ptolomey, and with the archaeological and numismatic finds in Southern India, has shown that the Tamil texts contain illuminating corroborative evidence.

Discussions of Roman Tamil trade made by Jean Filliozat, Mortimer Wheeler, Pierre Meile, E.H. Warmington and M.P. Charlesworth have taken into consideration the tests interpreted by V. Kangasabai Pillai in his book the "Tamils one thousand eight hundred years Ago". 1904.

(Excerpt) Read more at intamm.com ...


TOPICS: Agriculture; Books/Literature; Education; History; Poetry; Science; Travel; Weird Stuff
KEYWORDS: archaeology; epigraphyandlanguage; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; india; roman; romanempire; romans; rome; tamil
Roman period maritime artefacts
Univ of Southampton
2001
Dozens of classical wrecks excavated in the Mediterranean have produced a clear development of hull construction although little is preserved of their rigging. With no wrecks excavated in the Erythraean Sea the vehicles of the Roman trade are not represented in the archaeological record. Papyrological records detailing receipts and trading activity on the Nile mention Greek vessels called hellenikon, large river vessels which sailed the Nile (Lewis 1983: 143; Bagnall 1983: 35). These records give some detail of the rig, which may have been utilised on the Red Sea, this includes linen sails, ‘rings’ and blocks. As ancient sources suggest (Herodotus 2.36) Egyptian type vessels were quite different from specifically sea-going vessels, although a range of technologies may have been utilised by the Romans. However there is no published archaeological evidence for the type of craft referred to as ‘the good vessels, masterpieces of the Yavanas (westerners)’ (Sidebotham 1986: 23) mentioned in the c. 150 AD Tamil poetry of the Kauliliya Arthasastra. This referred to the arrival of Yavanas to the Malbar coast port of Muziris.

1 posted on 09/11/2004 8:07:01 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
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To: blam; FairOpinion; Ernest_at_the_Beach; SunkenCiv; 24Karet; 2Jedismom; 4ConservativeJustices; ...
"too bad we never got that far, we could have picked up things cheap." -- Livia character, "I, Claudius"
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2 posted on 09/11/2004 8:09:14 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/periplus/periplus.html


3 posted on 09/11/2004 8:12:34 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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[at] Qusier al-Qadim, from the first and second centuries A.D... were inscribed with Tamil graffiti in the Brahmi script and likely came from Arikamedu in southern India (not far from the modern town of Pondicherry). These constitute the first Indian Tamil inscriptions ever found in Egypt, and their discovery, next to a small iron forge, raises the possibility that a small community of Indian merchants or metalworkers lived at Qusier al-Qadim... researchers found items typical of the east, for example, teak and cloth made from jute. [pp 82-83]

At Empires Edge: Exploring Romes Egyptian Frontier At Empire's Edge:
Exploring Rome's Egyptian Frontier

by Robert B. Jackson
Contemporary writing about the Roman ships arriving in India and leaving with goods is also discussed.

I highly recommend this next one (same goes for other titles by Casson) which (among other things) discusses Roman-era trade between China and the west, including seagoing trade.
Travel in the Ancient World Travel in the Ancient World
by Lionel Casson

4 posted on 09/21/2004 11:28:37 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/keyword?k=napalminthemorning)
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Herodotus' History
The History: Thalia, the Internet Classics Archive ^ | 440 B.C. | Herodotus, tr by George Rawlinson
Posted on 09/09/2004 10:31:01 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1211770/posts

The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea
Silk Road ^ | 2004 | William H. Schoff
Posted on 09/12/2004 7:55:44 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1214273/posts


5 posted on 09/21/2004 11:30:48 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/keyword?k=napalminthemorning)
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A bit more from the Jackson book:
At Empire's Edge:
Exploring Rome's Egyptian Frontier

by Robert B. Jackson
Pliny the Elder also added a warning: "The subject is one well worthy of our notice, seeing that in no year does India drain us of less than 550,000,000 sesterces giving back her own wares, which are sold among us at fully 100 percent their first cost." Romans were not the only ones to comment on the nature of their trade with India. A Tamil poem from the second or third century A.D. includes the following passage: "The beautiful vessels, the masterpieces of the Yavanas [Westerners], stir white foam on the Periyar, river of Kerala, arriving with gold and departing with pepper." Despite the discovery in southern India of some six thousand silver denarii and gold aurei, which seems to corroborate these statements, scholars disagree about whether such an economic imbalance actually occurred. Certainly the Romans spent vast sums of money on Asian luxuries, but they might also have used a barter system. Roman amphora, pottery, glass, lamps, and other items have been excavated in India, Sri Lanka, and Arabia, and Roman beads (gold or silver, set in glass) have been uncovered in the Rufiji Delta of Tanzania... In addition, the Greek/Egyptian author of Periplus Maris Erythraei (Circumnavigation of the Red Sea) identifies specific places where bartering was or was not possible. [pp 88-89]

6 posted on 10/30/2004 4:34:05 PM PDT by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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At Empires Edge: Exploring Romes Egyptian Frontier by Robert B. Jackson

7 posted on 10/30/2004 4:36:00 PM PDT by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: blam; Ernest_at_the_Beach; FairOpinion; farmfriend; StayAt HomeMother

This is my own private topic. ;') [bump]


8 posted on 11/14/2004 9:53:31 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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Uncracked Ancient Codes
(Lost Languages reviewed)
by William C. West
Sanskrit and early Dravidian, the ancient languages of India, seem to be the keys to deciphering the highly challenging script of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium b.c. in what is now Pakistan and northwest India. As with other languages, a photographic corpus of drawings, a sign list and a concordance must be compiled before decipherment will be possible. Work has proceeded along these lines for inscriptions on some 3,700 objects from the Indus Valley, most of them seal stones with very brief inscriptions (the longest has only 26 characters)... Robinson's descriptions of such analysis, and his accounts of both successful and unsuccessful decoding attempts, are clear, provocative and stimulating.
Lost Languages: The Enigma Of The Worlds Undeciphered Scripts Lost Languages:
The Enigma Of The World's Undeciphered Scripts

by Andrew Robinson


9 posted on 12/02/2004 10:42:34 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: SunkenCiv

Lionel Casson pingarooni :)


10 posted on 12/29/2004 10:34:57 AM PST by Graymatter (Be all that you can be......Eat chocolate.)
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To: Graymatter
I love his books.

The Ancient Mariners The Ancient Mariners
by Lionel Casson


11 posted on 12/29/2004 2:20:14 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("The odds are very much against inclusion, and non-inclusion is unlikely to be meaningful." -seamole)
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Excavations at Berenike 1994-2001
by Nancy Corbin
American Research Center in Egypt
Also found at Berenike is the first ever example of a carpet - also Indian made. Pearls have been found in jewelry that are clearly eastern in origin. Pottery from Aqaba, Arabia - and India, is in abundance. Fine ware, which has incised decoration, can be identified specifically to India. The site in India from which it came can even be identified, thanks to the excavation's pottery specialist having traveled to India to study Indian made pottery... Of particular interest is the presence of black pepper, an Indian commodity, in exceptionally large quantity at Berenike. Dr. Windrich advised the audience that only two other sites in Egypt have found peppercorns - at Mons Claudianus, and at Shenshef. In each case fewer than 20 peppercorns were found, but at Berenike, the estimate presently stands at 133,000! This fact is primarily due to having excavated a very large clay pot, originally buried in a courtyard, that was completely full of peppercorns... in the 1st century, contact were really with Muziris on the southwestern coast of India, vice or perhaps in addition to Barygaza much farther north. And it goes without saying that the evidence for trade with India is clear.

12 posted on 05/01/2005 8:30:53 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (FR profiled updated Monday, April 11, 2005. Fewer graphics, faster loading.)
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Just updating the GGG information, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
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13 posted on 12/04/2005 9:51:41 PM PST by SunkenCiv (Down with Dhimmicrats! I last updated my FR profile on Wednesday, November 2, 2005.)
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14 posted on 04/21/2006 11:47:42 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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Archaeologists Uncover Ancient Maritime Spice Route Between India, Egypt
Popular Science | 2-8-2004
Posted on 02/08/2004 3:57:17 PM EST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1074033/posts


15 posted on 12/21/2006 12:12:12 AM PST by SunkenCiv (Don't bother, I haven't updated my profile since 11/16/06. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

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16 posted on 02/17/2009 7:24:23 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________ Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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