Skip to comments.Smenkhkhare, the Hittite Pharaoh
Posted on 07/30/2004 9:42:36 AM PDT by SunkenCiv
[T]he exclusively masculine epithets referring to this individual in the same tomb and on a now-vanished block at Memphis, confirm that we are dealing with a man - as distinct from the pharaoh-queen Ankh(et)kheperure Neferneferuaten... Contrary to Ancient Egyptian custom, Smenkhkare is not presented under a coronation name and a birth name in his two cartouches, but under two coronation names. The explanation for this curious fact seems to me clear: both his royal names were composed on the occasion of his coronation. He therefore must have had another name beforehand... The absence of a birth name, the lack of an Egyptian of appropriate rank and the clues in the Hittite archives allow us to conjecture that Smenkhkhare might in fact be the Hittite prince Zannanza.
(Excerpt) Read more at bbc.co.uk ...
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Commemorative scarab of Amenhotep IIIThe inscription on this commemorative scarab announces Amenhotep III's (c. 1391-1353 BC) marriage to Tiy, a woman of non-royal blood. It reads: The Living Horus Strong Bull Appearing in Truth; He of the Two Goddesses Establishing Laws, Pacifying the Two Lands; The Golden Horus Great of Valour, Smiting the Asiatics; King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, Neb-Ma`at-Re`; Son of Re`, Amenhotep Ruler of Thebes, given life, the Great Royal Wife Tiy, may she live. The name of her father is Yuia, the name of her mother is Tjuia. She is the wife of a mighty king whose southern boundary is to Karoy, whose northern is to Naharina.
New Kingdom, Dynasty 18
Western Australian Museum
Well, it's good he didn't grow up 'Smenkhkhare'. Imagine the teasing he'd have got in school?
"The Hittite archives found at Boghaz Koy in Turkey provide us with a clue. They tell us that the widow of a king of Egypt wrote to the Hittite king Suppiluliuma to ask for the hand of one of his sons in marriage. After much prevarication, Suppiluliuma sent his son Zannanza to Egypt, where he was assassinated, according to the Hittites."
Interesting. A Hittite prince as an Egyptian Farao...
The worship of the Aten was revived / adapted from Old Kingdom practices by Akhenaten's grandfather and predecessor, Thutmosis IV, who is probably best known (if at all) for the Dream Stele which he had carved and erected between the feet of the Great Sphinx. Attributing monotheism to Akhenaten is at best, inaccurate.Who Was Tutankhamun?We can, therefore deduce, that the mask is a true representation of the boy king - he is called the boy king, because he was only nine years old when he ascended the throne of Egypt after the death of his predecessor, Smenkhare - who was probably his brother. Smenkhkare, himself had just succeeded his father, the monotheistic heretic, Akhenaten. The reign of Akhenaten was not without change or intrigue, considering the stable rule of his father and traditionally Tutankhamuns grandfather, the Great Amenhotep III.
by Paul Badham
InScription - Journal of Ancient Egypt
Tiy gave birth to 2 sons and then 5 daughters: Eldest son: Prince Tuthmosis, heir to the throne, died before reigning. The 2nd son: Amenhotep (IV, Akhenaten) became heir to the throne after the death of Prince Tuthmosis. Another son of Amenhotep III was Merymose, viceroy of Kush, Kings Son of Kush, who crushed a rebellion at Ibhet. Amenhotep married two of his daughters, first Iset and then in year 30 of his reign, Satamun. Either one of these ladies may have been the mother of Tutankhamun by Amenhotep III. It is a possibility that Baketaten may have been Amenhoteps daughter by Satamun who he married later in his reign.
The queen of Egypt who wrote the letter is called Dahamunzu, and her husband ("their lord") is called Nibhuruiya. Who were these royals? Their names are transliterations of Egyptian names into the Hittite language... There can be little doubt that the king was Tutankhamen, whose prenomen... is Neb-kheperu-re... Dahamunzu... was probably... the Egyptian phrase Ta Hemet Nesewt -- "The King's Wife"... (p 176)The source of this info was Mursilis II who was summarizing documents from his father's time. Neb-kheperu-re was part of Tutankhamen's name, but since the titles of his immediate predecessor were previously borne by Akhenaten (analogous perhaps to the later Roman uses of the term "Caesar" and "Augustus" by Diocletian etc) it wouldn't surprise me to learn that Akhenaten previously bore the same title, and that it may not have begun or ended there.
There's the name, centuries earlier, attached to an obscure pharaoh (or pretender). Interestingly enough:
So much for the phonetic identification of Tutankhamen. It appears that the inscription left by the "Hittites" says no such thing.Saul, David and Solomon and the Amarna periodThis story was found on a clay tablet in Turkey. In this, Tutankhamen is called Pip-khurru-riya.
by E.J. de Meester
I use an Amarna microwave for popcorn during Zannanza reruns.
I stopped watching when Pernell Roberts quit the show.
Amarna: Capital City of Ancient Egypt
Censing The God: Psychoactive Substances In Ancient EgyptMichael ran through a series of slides, almost exclusively from Egypt's controversial Amarna period. This began with the pharaoh Akhenaten around 1378 BC and included the 12-year reign of the boy king Tutankhamun. Tiles, friezes and jewellery from this era frequently portrayed not just the psychoactive mandrake plant, but also the blue water lily. Drugs such as mandrake would have been burnt on incense holders and the fumes absorbed through the nasal passage... Michael showed slides of beautiful alabaster vases found in the tomb of Tutankhamun fashioned to resemble both the stem and flower of the blue water lily. These, Michael suggested, were used by the king to consume extracts of the plant. Friezes showed the pharaoh surrounded by the blue water lily and also the mandrake plant. This has led Michael to conclude that the image of the pharaoh as a militaristic leader, smiting his enemies, diverts us from the real fact that Egyptian kings considered the use of drugs, such as the blue water lily and the mandrake, important in communication with the gods... the consumption of drugs in Egyptian society extended far beyond the Amarna period and was important to the culture throughout its 3,000-year history. Furthermore, that it might well have had shamanistic roots which predated dynastic history, a theory I put forward in my book GODS OF EDEN He also touched upon the subject of nicotine and cocaine being found in Egyptian mummies during the 1990s by German toxicologist Svetlana Balabanova. Although he admits that the presence of cocaine, the active ingredient of the coca plant, cannot suitably be explained, there are a number of plants which were known to the Egyptians that contain tiny amounts of nicotine.
by Michael Carmichael
summarized by Andrew Collins
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July 22, 2005
by Jessica E. Saraceni
"This brief history of the famous bust of Nefertiti discovered in Egypt by German archaeologists in 1912 marks its return to the Berlin Egyptian Museum. The article neglects to mention that the government of Egypt has recently demanded the return of the Queen."
Queen Nefertiti moves to her new digs
July 22 2005 at 11:32AM
By Ernest Gill
Tomb of Tutankhamen
by Howard Carter
The subjects painted upon the walls of this chamber, though resembling in many ways those of the tomb of his successor, King Ay, differ from those found in any of the other sepulchral chambers in the Valley. The style of painting is also not of Theban type, it shows distinct traits of El Amarna art. In contradistinction to this the decoration of Hor-em-heb's tomb has distinct affinity with the art displayed in all the other royal tombs in the Valley, so much so that it led the late Sir Gaston Maspero into the supposition that it was the work of the same artists employed in Seti's tomb, constructed some twenty-five years later. [p 115]
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Fun reading: Velikovsky's Oedipus and Akhnaton. IV theorized that Akhnaton was the inspiration for the Oedipus story, and Smenkhare and Tutankhamen were his successors, who vied for the throne.
Probably just classic overheated Velikovsky, but still a fascinating viewpoint.
O and A, or rather the work on it (which was a paper on some ideas of Freud's), led V to everything else, but didn't appear until 1960. Very cool book. Bob Brier, the "Tut was murdered" guy, who also has a ghoulish interest in mummification, actually mentions O and A in his "Murder..." book, claiming that it should be taken with a grain of salt. Since the murder of Tut was just sensationalism, regardless of the data that was available, Brier had some nerve. My cute remark was the Brier's book should be taken with a grain of natron. ;')
[another page, same BBC piece]
"Late in Akhenaten's reign a mysterious pharaoh-queen appears, whose identity has often been confused with that of King Smenkhare. The pharaoh-queen's coronation name is Ankh(et)kheperure Neferneferuaten. Although not consistently, her name sometimes appears in a feminine form, which is how we can be sure that we are dealing with a woman... position as royal wife is also apparent from the second cartouche of her name, where she (although often referred to in the masculine form 'he') is sometimes called 'she who is beneficent to her husband [i.e. Akhenaten]'... The striking thing is that this description was in fact a common epithet used for the goddess Isis, when emphasising her role as widow of the god Osiris. In other words it is an epithet that makes reference to the traditional gods, abandoned during Akhenaten's reign and only restored after his death. So the use of this epithet suggests that this queen-pharaoh reigned after the death of Akhenaten, but had herself depicted and described as ruling alongside him as his fictitious 'co-regent'."
Who Was Tutankhamun? (Part 3)The British Egyptologist, E.A.Wallis Budge, a great contributor to the cause of Egyptology (but lately much slated, unjustly in my opinion, by some authors) makes reference in his book, 'Tutankhamun', originally published in 1923 shortly after the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb, to a scarab which declares the name of the 'King's Mother'! The scarab was found at the Temple of Osiris at Abydos. From this scarab he says, 'we learn that his, Tutankhamun's, mother was called Merit-Ra' - Budge also prints a copy of the cartouche. He gives the reference to such a major claim as being a work published by the French Egyptologist, Mariette, in 1880! (Mariette, Abydos, Paris, 1880, tom.II, pl. 40n)... it has been mentioned in passing by Desroche-Noblecourt in her book on Tutankhamun as, 'his mother might have been Meritra', but does not refer to its source (Mariette). In her 'List of Principal Characters', Desroche describes Meritra as an, 'Egyptian Princess who, according to some authors, might have been Tutankhamun's mother'! ...The amazing thing about this scarab is that it contained the two cartouches, Tutankhamun's and the King's Mother, side by side - leaving no doubt as to its meaning... "The Good God (ie king), (Nebkheperura), King's Mother, (Merytra)". The correct translation for the spelling of the name is Merytra. The scarab declares a lady called Merytra was the mother of Tutankhamun, but who was Merytra? ...What is significant is that the king's name used, is Tutankhamun's Throne Name, Nebkheperura, suggesting that she was still alive after Year 17 of Akhenaten and Year 1 of Tutankhamun, i.e. after the return from Atenism to the old religion of Amun... Another possibility concerning this scarab, is that Merytra was originally called, Meritaten! And that she had a name change to Meryt-ra, beloved of the god Ra, rather than Aten, after the Aten heresy during Tutankhamun's Throne Years - a time suggested by the scarab.
by Paul Badham
InScription - Journal of Ancient Egypt
Dendrochronological Dating of the Uluburun ShipThe unique gold scarab of Egypt's Queen Nefertiti, Akhenaten's beloved wife, appears to be fairly worn from use, which suggests that it had been around for some time before it was taken on board the ship. Furthermore, it may have been part of a jeweler's hoard, as it was discovered in the midst of complete, cut, and folded jewelry pieces and other bits of scrap precious metals. If the scarab was a part of the scrap hoard, which is debatable, it almost certainly arrived on the ship after Nefertiti's time, when her scarab would have been worthless except for its gold value.
by Dr. Cemal Pulak
Scarab from the Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck -the first found in gold- bears the title of the queen Nefertiti. 14th century B.C. Photo: Tufan Turanli
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